Civil engineering is a discipline of engineering that deals with the design and construction of natural and physical built environments. This includes roads, bridges and canals, dams and airports.
Traditional civil engineering can be broken down into several sub-disciplines. This engineering discipline is second in age to military engineering. It is used to differentiate non-military from military engineering. Civil engineering can be found in both the public and private sectors, from local governments to national governments to individual homeowners to multinational corporations.
Civil engineering uses scientific and physical principles to solve problems in society. Its history is closely linked with advances in physics and mathematics through history. Civil engineering is a broad-ranging field that includes many sub-disciplines. Its history is linked with knowledge of geography, geology, soils, hydrology and mechanics as well as other fields.
Archimedes' 3rd century BC work, including the Archimedes Principle, is one of the first examples of a scientific approach for solving physical and mathematical problems in civil engineering. This principle underpins our understanding buoyancy and provides practical solutions like Archimedes screw. Brahmagupta was an Indian mathematician who used arithmetic to calculate volume (excavation) calculations in the 7th Century AD. It was based on Hindu-Arabic numerals.
A degree in civil engineering is a common requirement for civil engineers. The degree can be completed in three to five years. It is called a bachelor or bachelor of engineering. The curriculum usually includes courses in physics, mathematics and project management. They will take basic courses in the majority of sub-disciplines in civil engineering before they can specialize in one or more subdisciplines at higher levels. An undergraduate degree (BEng/B.Tech), is usually awarded to successful students with an industry-accredited qualification. However, some institutions offer postgraduate degrees (ME/M.Tech/MS) that allow students to specialize in their area of interest.